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America Moving toward Caste Society - Putnam 2014
In this interview Harvard academic Robert Putnam talks about "the death of the American Dream and why being poor in America is no longer a matter of race."

Supporters of volunteer-based tutoring/mentoring should use this as further evidence of where and why mentor-rich programs are needed.
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America's Public Schools Highly Segregated - see maps
These maps in this article show that America’s public schools are still highly segregated by race and income, with the declining share of white students typically concentrated in schools with other white students and the growing share of Latino students concentrated into low-income public schools with other students of color.
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Education data web site - U.S. Department of Education
ED Data Express is a Web site designed to improve the public's ability to access and explore high-value state-level education data collected by the U.S. Department of Education.

This site has tremendous power to show data. This link points to a profile of Washington, DC.
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Educational Technology Not Leveling Playing Field
This article illustrates how important mentors, coaches and extra adults are to how young people use technology for learning.
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Entrepreneurship Education: Enabling Teachers
This 2011 European Commission report defines "Entrepreneurship as an individual's ability to turn ideas into action. It includes creativity, innovation, showing initiative and risk-taking, as well as the ability to plan and manage projects in order to achieve objectives."

It also says "entrepreneurship education means developing a culture which is through, for and about entrepreneurship. Such competencies are best acquired through people-led enquiry and discovery that enable students to turn ideas into action."

Educators and Business Leaders in the US should be reading this and developing US strategies to accomplish the same goals.
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Facts showing racial disparities - and education gap in US
The Black Star Project web site has a wealth of statistical information, articles and other information that communities can use to build a better understanding of the challenges facing minority communities. Use this information to support your own involvement in solving this problem by providing a wider range of learning and employment resources to young people and adults in these communities.
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Mentoring Decreases Youth Violence - new research (2012)
This article refers to a "large social science research study by the University of Chicago Crime Lab, in partnership with Chicago Public Schools and local nonprofits, which found that counseling and mentoring actually work." Read more. Follow the links to the research.
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Nation's Ed System Failing too many - Pathways to Prosperity 2012
"By concentrating too much on classroom-based academics with four-year college as a goal, the nation’s education system has failed vast numbers of students, who instead need solid preparation for careers requiring less than a bachelor’s degree, Harvard scholars say at Harvard University’s Graduate School of Education"
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Race for Results: Building a Path to Opportunity for All Children
From the web site: "In this 2014 policy report, the Annie E. Casey Foundation explores the intersection of kids, race and opportunity. The report features the new Race for Results index, which compares how children are progressing on key milestones across racial and ethnic groups at the national and state level."

Here is the link to the PDF of the report:

Here is the link to a video of the panel discussion on the day the report was released:
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Redefining Child and Family Services: Directions for the Future
This report published by The Center for Children at Chapin Hall in 1994 was originally issued as a white paper in December 1992.
The Tutor/Mentor Connection used the recommendations in this report as some of the fundamental reasons to launch the T/MC strategy in 1993. In 2011 the strategy was moved into the Tutor/Mentor Institute, LLC
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Social Capital Role in Empowering Low-Status Youth
The full title of this paper is "A Social Capital Framework for the Study of Institutional Agents & Their Role in the Empowerment of Low-status Students & Youth"
Written by Ricardo D. Stanton-Salazar, Ph.D.
Associate Professor of Education Rossier School of Education University of Southern California 3470 Trousdale Parkway Los Angeles, California 90089-4036
This paper provide rich thinking about the role "that non-family adults agents play in the social development, socialization, formal and informal education, and social mobility of adolescents" and provides many reasons to support mentor-rich non-school tutor/mentor programs operating in high poverty neighborhoods.
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The Economic Benefits of Closing Educational Achievement Gaps
This article stated "If the United States were able to close the educational achievement gaps between native-born white children and black and Hispanic children, the U.S. economy would be 5.8 percent—or nearly $2.3 trillion—larger in 2050." Read more. Download the full PDF
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The Mentoring Effect: Young People's Perspectives on Outcomes and Availability
This report was commissioned by MENTOR: The National Mentoring Partnership with support from AT&T and written by Civic Enterprises with Hart Research. It is describe this way:

"The Mentoring Effect: Young People's Perspectives on the Outcomes and Availability of Mentoring, the first-ever nationally representative survey of young people on the topic of mentoring, examines the mentoring effect on youth, their aspirations and achievements and the community around them. The report also highlights a substantial mentoring gap that exists in America, especially for at-risk youth: one in three young people will reach adulthood without having a mentor."

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Who Profits from Charter Schools? Thought provoking article
This blog raises a lot of questions about Charter Schools and who benefits most. Combine it with other articles to form your own opinion.
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Why so few white kids end up in Chicago Public Schools - WBEZ story
For anyone trying to understand racial segregation, poverty, inequality in Chicago, this article provides some needed information.
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Widening Achievement Gap between Rich and Poor
This report by Sean Reardon, a Stanford professor of education and sociology, shows that the income achievement gap--the difference in the average standardized scores between children from families at the 10th percentile of income distribution and children at the 90th percentile--is now "nearly twice as large as the black-white achievement gap."
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The Effects of Homicide on Life Expectancy
The title of this study is "Years off Your Life? The Effects of Homicide on Life Expectancy by Neighborhood and Race/Ethnicity in Los Angeles County"

This study shows that "Homicide was estimated to reduce life expectancy by 0.4 years for Los Angeles County residents and by 2.1 years for black males. The impact of homicide on life expectancy was higher in low-income neighborhoods."

Read more.
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“The Role of Risk” a 2013 Study from Washington State Mentors
From MENTOR newsletter: "This report presents results from the first large-scale evaluation to examine how the levels and types of risk youth face may influence their mentoring relationships and the benefits they derive from mentoring programs. The study looked closely at the backgrounds of participating youth and their mentors, the mentoring relationships that formed, the program supports that were offered, and the benefits youth received — and assessed how these varied for youth with differing “profiles” of risk.
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2007-08 Illinois High School Drop Out maps

This set of maps shows how the high school drop out problem is spread throughout Illinois, but more severe in the urban areas like Chciago.  These maps were created by the Regional Education Laboratory at Learning Point Associates.

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A look at public school enrollment numbers

This data table is from 1993, but it shows the enrollment of the largest school districts in the country. It is critically important to understand the size of the population and geography to understand the challenges of improving education opportunities.

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A Nation at Risk - after 25 years. On EPI site.
The Economic Policy Institute, a nonprofit Washington D.C. think tank, was created in 1986 to broaden the discussion about economic policy to include the interests of low- and middle-income workers. Today, with global competition expanding, wage inequality rising, and the methods and nature of work changing in fundamental ways, it is as crucial as ever that people who work for a living have a voice in the economic discourse.

The article we're pointing to was written by Richard Rothstein and EPI associate. The full text is at

This site is full of articles like this so add it to your reading list.
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A New Conceptualistion of Social Capital
This article by Tristan Claridge uses a variety of diagrams to conceptualize social capital and account for the complexity between the determinants and consequences or outcomes of social capital.
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A New Day for Learning -

New Day for Learning is not a curriculum or one-size fits all program; it's a 21st century vision for learning that builds on a foundation of core academics by leveraging community resources to incorporate strategies such as hands-on learning, working in teams and problem solving. Many programs that take place before the school day, after school and during the summer are already using these innovative learning approaches to engage students and increase their chances for success.

Visit the web site and learn more about this initiative.

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A theoretical model that integrates previously competing theories of social capital with the literature on career success was developed and tested with a sample of 448 employees in a range of occupations and organizations. Social capital was conceptualized in terms of network structure (weak ties and structural holes) and social resources (contacts in other functions and contacts at other

organizational levels). Results of a SEM showed that network structure was related to social resources and that the effects of social resources on career success were fully mediated by three network benefits: access to information, access to resources, and career sponsorship.

Tutor/Mentor Connection Comment:  If this is true for people in the workforce, can a case be made for mentoring as a strategy to expand social networks for disadvantatged youth, or to expand the networks for workplace volunteers?

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Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning (CASEL)
Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning (CASEL) focuses on the social and emotional learning (SEL) needs of children and youth and shows school-family partnerships that attempt to address these needs.
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